India is the largest democracy and one of the powerful emerging nations of the world in this century. This country is also known as abode of spirituality. According to world renowned philosopher and ex-president of Indian Republic Dr. Radha Krishanan, 'India is museum of faiths."
The genesis and growth of Sikh political culture is one of the most stirring and striking chapters of evolution of mankind. Sikhism is one of the most unique modern religions. Ten Gurus nurtured it. Its teachings are enshrined in the eternal Guru 'Guru Granth Sahib' abbreviated as GSS. Sikhism praches fatherhood of God and Brotherhood of man. The teachings of Gurus led to the realization of democracy.
The transformation of Sikhs into Singhs was due to many factors. The Sikh faith was facing on slaught of an alien and tyrannical rule.
Guru Gobind Singh the 10th Guru was a great psychologist and felt the pulse of his time. He wanted to instill courage in the people to fight against political despotism and atrocities. The saint soldier Guru wanted that by bapatising Amrit, he would make one Sikh fight against "Sawa Lakh". His creation of Khalsa was to possess the moral ideals and prepared to defend the basic social religious, political and human rights even at the cost of their lives.
For the Baisakhi in 30 March, 1699, the Guru Govind Rai issued a General invitation to the Sikhs throughout the country with unshorn hair. Thirty three thousand Sikhs came to participate in the Baisakhi in response to their loving Guru clarion call. On the fine morning of the mainday, after chanting hymns concluded, the Guru appeared on the dias with an unsheathed sword shining in his hand and asked the audience, "My lovely one! My Sword is thirsty. It needs the blood of a sikh to quench its thirst. Is there anyone in the audience who is willing to offer his head?' The audience kept mum. Is there anyone who is willing to present his head to satisfy my sword? The Guru repeated. The audience became more uneasy. I understand that there is none in this audience who is willing to sacrifice his life for his living Guru". This was a third call. A humble sikh called Daya Ram, a Khatri from Lahore in the north of thirty years age, got up and offered his head smilingly. Guru held him and took him in the nearby tent pitched adjustment to the dias. A moment later, Guru came with his sword dripping with blood." I want another head?" shouted the Guru. There was panic in the audience. They doubted that the Guru was insane. Before reparation of Guru's call another sikh got up. A Jat from Delhi and placed him at the disposal of his master. He pulled him into the tent·in strange frenzy, subsequently third, fourth and fifth. Third was Mohkam Chand a sikh from far off Dwarika in Gujrat in the west land fourth Himmat Chand of Jagannathpuri in Orissa in the east and fifth was Sahib Chand of Bider (Karnataka in the south). The gathering was in dilemma. After sometime, the remaining audience saw that the five faithful Sikhs emerged one after another bold, radiant and beaming like stars came from Heaven! They were followed by the Guru glowing with a new confidence. The audience turned into joy. They said, "The Guru is great!" "Long live the Guru!" glory to the Guru, shouting such slogan. Guru Gobind Singh said, "Those who know how to die, only they win!'
All the five Sikhs had unique dress with a new spirit of life. The Guru then brought steel vessel and poured water. Five Sikhs asked to recite the sacred scriptures turn by turn and Guru stirred the water with a double-edged dagger called Khanda. Mata Sahib Devan came with sugar candy and poured into the water of vessel (Khanda-batta). It was marrying valour with compassion. This turned the Sikhs into heroes and sugar-candy fostered them the milk of human kindness. When recitation was over, Amrit (nectar) was ready and all the five faithful clad into blue robes of angels Guru blessed them with nectar. The five pyaras (beloved) were bapatised. Then Guru Govind Rai stood before them with his hands folded and prayed for the bapatize him.
Thus Guru turned himself into disciple. The moment he had submitted and sipped nectar he changed from Gobind Rai to Gobind Singh. At least about thirty thousand disciples were baptized and turned Sikh into Singhs . SINGH means LION and KAUR means LIONESS. The five piaras (five beloved) as holistic, they came from five different regions and caste of the Indian sub-continent. The Guru dismantled caste hierarchy and integrated under new way of life. A new order of the Khalsa was found. This was the need of the hour. The order of saint-soldier found who could fight the forces of evil, exploitation of the poor and down-trodden and communal hatred in Indian society. A unique preamble was given to the Sikhs. All Sikhs are equal. There is no high or low caste. Khalsa believed in one be God and brotherhood of man. The Khalsa must help the needy and protect the poor irrespective of caste, creed colour or gender. Follower of prescribed way of live. The Guru is the Khalsa and the Khalsa is the Guru. Thus a dynamics of Khalsa panth was created. It was part of this vision of the futuristic society based on justice. The Khalsa was to function as society with its political and religious organizations enjoying absolute sovereignty as collective subordinate only to God.
Guru Govind Singh gave Sikhism a democratize orientation of the most modern form. The tenth master preached the principle of equality of men and women, and equality of caste. Gurumata was the concept of popular sovereignty and advocated the service of humanity. With a calm resolve he had brought about as miraculous transformation of the spirit of people infusing in them a self belief and spirit with which could fight oppression and tyranny. He inspired the Khalsa path a faith in them selves. He roused a feeling of nationism in the people. The main motto of the Khalsa Panth is trust in God and do the right.
On this 1st day of Vaisakh Guru Gobind Singh a true nation builder gave the massage of liberty, equality and fraternity to mankind. His political philosophy has to be understood in our times. And let I never be forgotten that the achievement of the people who formed less than two percent of the population of the country have made eight six percent of sacrifices for the sake of independence a people who numbered less than two in on hundred molded the destinies of our vast sub continent.